• Set the Table with Switchel

    Set the Table with Switchel

    Long a staple in Northeast hayfields as a thirst quencher and restorative, switchel—alternatively called “haymaker’s punch” —was a colonial era proto-Gatorade, a source of both hydration and electrolyte replenishment. Recipes vary, but the most common ingredients were molasses, cider vinegar, and ginger, mixed to taste in a jug of very cold well water. While the concoction could have provided benefit to all manner of laborers and sporting folks, its use was particularly common among the workers of the hayfield and the children who carried the switchel jug to them.

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  • Bartered, Smuggled, and Bought

    Bartered, Smuggled, and Bought

    When the Upper Valley Localvores took their first 100–mile diet challenge in August 2005, we came upon a serious stumbling block. No local salt! Tomatoes and corn–on–the–cob were abundant, but oh, we needed salt. Fortunately, one of our members had vacationed in Maine and brought back a precious supply of sea salt. It made us wonder what our Upper Valley ancestors had done for salt.

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  • Eat it on the Radio

    Eat it on the Radio

    In his book Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and the Durable Future, Vermont author and environmentalist Bill McKibben focuses on the importance of strong communities for the health and well-being of the planet and its people. He suggests that we can strengthen our home regions by producing more of our own food, generating more of our own energy, and even creating more of our own culture and entertainment. To achieve these goals, McKibben advises, we need to build or rebuild local institutions that draw people together, and one such institution that he cites in his book is a low-power radio station in the Mad River Valley: WMRW-LP Warren, 95.1 FM.

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  • A Passion for Artisan Soap

    A Passion for Artisan Soap

    My soap-making journey started a decade or so ago, when I was becoming more and more sensitized (allergic) to mainstream, detergent-type soaps. Eventually I just couldn’t use them anymore. As I researched the subject, I became alarmed at what was being used in cosmetic products on the market, not to mention all the harmful chemicals leaching into our waterways as a result of those products. I decided to start making my own soap, and the enthusiasm I had back then for soap making has now turned into a passion and a business for me. My only regret is that I didn’t start making them sooner!

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  • Halal in the Hills

    Halal in the Hills

    Art Meade is a 59-year-old livestock and poultry farmer with a thick Maine accent and a farm on Route 100 in Morrisville. He also happens to run the only state-licensed slaughter facility in Vermont that caters to Muslims who practice halal slaughter. This is the Muslim tradition of swiftly slitting the throat of a domesticated meat animal with a sharp knife; the animal is believed to be killed instantly and painlessly (though there is some debate about that). Muslims, who are directed by their religion to eat halal meat, can purchase such meat in Vermont stores, but some prefer to do the slaughter themselves.

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  • How to Start a Community Garden

    How to Start a Community Garden

    Back in January, as my husband and I searched for a place to live in Middlebury, we had big plans to create a summer vegetable garden. But it quickly became clear that housing in town with gardening space wouldn’t be easy to find. Apartments that advertised a “big yard” always seemed to have a “scruffy lawn,” and few landlords reacted well to my desire to dig out a portion of that lawn to plant vegetables.

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  • The Story of Bread

    The Story of Bread

    Green Mountain Flour, a new artisan bakery in Windsor owned and operated by Zachary Stremlau and Daniella Malin, takes a unique approach to its craft: it uses local wheat, local milling, and local fuel to create its flours, breads, and pizzas. Here, woodcuts that comprise the bakery’s logo tell “the story of bread,” echoing a time in early New England when, according to Zachary and Daniella, “the farmers knew the miller, the miller milled with stone, and the baker baked with fire.”

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  • How to Get Grounded

    How to Get Grounded

    On a road in Cabot, not far from the land that Laura Dale and Cyrus Pond bought this past March, you can look out to the west at a horizon dominated by the undulating spine of the Green Mountains. For many young farmers in Vermont, the cost of land can seem as daunting and insurmountable as the largest of those mountains in the dead of winter.

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  • Tapping for Taste

    Tapping for Taste

    There are people in Vermont who prefer fake maple syrup—not just people who are looking for something cheaper but who actually prefer the stuff made of corn syrup. There are other people in Vermont who don’t talk to those fake syrup types. And there are Vermonters who stand by Grade B for all occasions and others who keep a little Fancy on hand.

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  • Farming & Feasting with the Robinsons: Winter

    Farming & Feasting with the Robinsons: Winter

    In the not-so-distant past, eating locally was a way of life and a matter of necessity. For four generations, the Robinson family farmed in Ferrisburgh, at the place known today as the Rokeby Museum. The museum’s collection includes correspondence and household records detailing the family’s ways of farming, preserving, and eating. In the last of this four-part series, we take a look at how the Robinsons cooked, ate, and farmed in the late 1800s.

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  • Classy Wheat

    Classy Wheat

    Last year, I arrived at The Putney School as their new gardener and was tasked with getting the high school students at this Putney boarding and day school excited about gardening. Early on, the farm manager told me he had planted some wheat on the edge of one of the farm’s hayfields. I was intrigued.

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  • Farm Camp—Planting Confidence, Harvesting Strength

    Farm Camp—Planting Confidence, Harvesting Strength

    As I downshift off the Putney exit of I-91, my husband, Jerry, is roused from his dozing by the hollow sound of several hundred jostling maple syrup jugs. It’s April, time to buy containers for our maple syrup at Bascom’s 10% container sale, and time to post Farm Camp flyers.

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  • The First Localvores

    The First Localvores

    I have always been fascinated by wild foods. When I was a kid growing up in Indiana we had a copy of Euell Gibbons’ book Stalking the Wild Asparagus, and I remember how exciting it was to read about eating cattails, making acorn flour, and brewing sassafras tea. As I recall, the cattail stalks tasted a bit like mild turnips, the acorn flour was tannic and needed a lot of processing before being edible, and the tea tasted like something just this side of root beer. Little did I know as a kid that wild edibles such as cattails and acorns were just a couple of the foods historically gathered and consumed by the first people to inhabit the state I would one day call home.

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  • Restoring Vermont’s Heritage

    Restoring Vermont’s Heritage

    “The farming of our fathers was exceedingly simple, content to draw from a virgin soil the supplies of simple wants, instead of aiming itself for their increase. With the impoverishment of the soil, with the forests almost swept off the face of the country and the consequent climate change, with the multiplied wants of society and development of so many new industries, the highest intelligence and energies are required to remodel our system of agriculture so that it may fully meet the demands made upon it.

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Micro Milk

A South Royalton company envisions a rebirth of Vermont dairy through small-scale pasteurization

Bob-White’s low-impact, small-scale pasteurizer
Bob-White’s low-impact, small-scale pasteurizer

Written By

Sylvia Fagin

Written on

June 01 , 2011

Local food and slow food frequently mean small food: small farms, small producers, small quantities. The English language happens to provide a nice term for very small: micro. So it follows that the antidote to a huge, consolidated milk production system might be a micro dairy.

If not exactly an industry term, the phrase “micro dairy” is being used with increasing regularity. A Google search on it yielded two producers of small processing equipment and several news stories about small farms and their products, from across the country and the world.

And several times in that Google search, Bob-White Systems, a company based in South Royalton, appeared.

He may not have coined the term, but Steven Judge, Bob-White’s founder, uses “micro dairy” to refer to a dairy farm with six or fewer cows that sells all its products—such as milk, yogurt, cheese, and butter—directly from the farm.

“It’s becoming an industry term,” Judge says. “It wasn’t even a term 10 years ago. Having only three or four cows was inconceivable.” Judge should know. He’s been in and out of the dairy business for “about 40 years,” and has seen a lot of farms fold in that time. He believes that micro dairy pasteurization will help individual farmers regain control of the dairy industry after years of consolidation.

Judge’s vision is this: hundreds of micro dairies throughout Vermont, each with a handful of cows providing fresh, “gently pasteurized” milk directly to neighbors. According to company calculations, a four-cow dairy selling milk at $7 per gallon—a theoretical price based on the going rate for raw milk—could net almost $21,000 annually. That’s not enough to make a living, Judge concedes, but enough to supplement another income stream from the farm, like a CSA, or an off-the-farm job. Milking four cows, and pasteurizing their milk, takes only an hour or two a day, Judge claims, leaving plenty of time for other endeavors.

The key to this vision is Bob-White’s low-impact, small-scale pasteurizer designed specifically for micro dairies. Although the company has yet to sell a single one—their system hasn’t met all the conditions necessary for state approval—Bob-White staff are hard at work promoting the benefits that small-scale pasteurization could bring to Vermont agriculture.

Currently, consumers can buy raw (unpasteurized) milk directly from dairy farmers. But not all consumers want to drink raw milk. Customers wanting pasteurized milk from local farms have few choices. Only Strafford Organic Creamery in Strafford, Monument Farms Dairy in Weybridge, Thomas Dairy in Rutland, and Oak Knoll Dairy in Windsor bottle exclusively Vermont milk for retail sale throughout the state.

What’s more, small farms wanting to sell pasteurized Vermont milk can’t easily do so. Over the years, the consolidation of the milk industry has made small-scale bottling a thing of the past. Bottling equipment is hard to find, tricky to repair, and, due to its relative scarcity, often expensive.


In a sunny storefront that was once a video rental store, Bob-White Systems (the company is named after the northern bobwhite quail, a game bird common in the small North American dairy pastures of yesteryear) sells new and used small-scale dairy equipment and cheese making supplies—and demonstrates a prototype of the company’s low-impact, small-scale pasteurizer.

Pasteurization, which has been used on commercial milk since the early 1900s, involves heating milk to a certain temperature—at least 161°F for fluid milk—long enough to kill potential disease-causing bacteria. Most large-scale and commercial pasteurization use a system called “HTST,” which stands for high temperature, short time. In HTST systems, milk enters the pasteurization unit through a tube, is heated to the required temperature, and is held in a loop for the necessary time, usually less than 30 seconds. The milk then exits the unit through another tube to another bulk tank.

Large commercial dairies pasteurize hundreds or thousands of gallons a minute. Monument Farms, which milks 450 cows, uses an HTST system to pasteurize 16 gallons a minute; the HTST system at Strafford Organic Creamery, which milks around 50 cows, uses an Israeli-designed system that pasteurizes slightly more than two gallons a minute. Bob-White’s system could pasteurize one gallon per minute.

HTST pasteurization differs from vat pasteurization, which is the small-scale system most commonly used by small cheesemakers. In vat pasteurization, the milk is poured into the tank, heated, and held at the required temperature for the required time, usually 10–15 minutes for milk, longer for butter, cheese, and yogurt. Vat pasteurization is a longer process and is “harsher on the milk,” according to Judge—thus the Bob-White claim that their system is “low impact” and retains the milk’s delicate, farm-fresh flavor.

Rather than shrink an existing HTST system, Bob-White chose to take the essential HTST concepts and apply them to a small, farmstead-scale machine. Consequently, current pasteurization regulations, written for large commercial equipment, don’t apply to its system. Bob-White engineers met with the FDA about their prototype and are incorporating the FDA’s feedback into their design process. Once the redesign is complete, the company will seek approval from the Vermont Agency of Agriculture for the unit.

The unit isn’t designed for milk that’s going to cross state lines, Judge says, so the company will seek approval from individual states, rather than try to comply with the federal pasteurized milk ordinance (PMO). Judge hopes the unit will be ready for state inspection in late summer.

But are there farms interested in selling bottled pasteurized milk? Judge gets calls from small farmers across the nation interested in doing just that. Bob-White’s modeling theorizes that Vermont could support roughly 1,000 micro dairies each bottling about 20 gallons a day—enough to provide milk to approximately 60 families—although the market for farm-bottled, pasteurized milk is mostly untested.

One small Vermont farm currently bottling milk on the micro scale is Farm and Wilderness in Plymouth. Chantal Deojay milks three cows and uses a 35-gallon vat pasteurizer to pasteurize milk four times a week. She sells the non-homogenized milk for about $7/gallon at the Rutland and Shrewsbury co-ops and the Woodstock Farmers’ Market store.

Her small-scale equipment—which fills only one bottle at a time—wasn’t cheap, Deojay concedes; she estimates that she paid or so $30,000 for all the components. But the milk sells well. “People love it,” she says.

It’s hard to know if Judge’s vision of 1,000 such micro dairies producing fluid milk could become reality. Diane Bothfeld, Vermont’s deputy secretary of agriculture, notes that “Vermont already produces more milk than it can drink,” shipping most of what’s produced here out of state. Even so, “small dairy is really booming” in Vermont, according to Dan Scruton, dairy and energy Chief of the Division of Food Safety and Consumer Protection at the Agency of Agriculture. He notes that a number of licenses are pending for small-dairy producers.


Judge also sees potential customers for his small-scale pasteurizer among Vermont’s small-scale producers of cheese, butter, and yogurt. Turkey Hill Farm in Randolph Center is one of those small-scale producers. Owners Stuart and Margaret Osha sell raw milk directly from their farm and will continue to do so, but they recently purchased a 45-gallon vat pasteurization system in order to make yogurt from the milk of their five cows.

“The vat is designed so you can do 45 gallons or 4 gallons,” Margaret explained. In addition to yogurt, the Oshas will likely also pasteurize milk for soft cheeses. “We like the versatility,” she added. “You never know when we’re going to have the next idea.”

The Oshas purchased their small vat pasteurizer from MicroDairy Designs in Maryland for $20,000. The unit includes a chiller and a filler/bottler unit, and if they so chose, the Oshas could adapt it to bottle fluid milk and cream as well as yogurt, although they aren’t currently planning to do so.

The Bob-White system, which Judge anticipates will retail for approximately $25,000, is equally versatile, able to process any amount of milk. Bob-White is also working on developing a filler/bottler to use with the pasteurizer, so that farmers can meet federal Grade A dairy regulations. Grade A dairy products, which include fluid milk and yogurt, can’t be touched by human hands. Thus, any farmer wanting to sell Grade A dairy products across state lines must also purchase a filler, a machine that fills and seals the container.

Judge thinks that doesn’t make sense. He’d like to see small-scale milk processors avoid the need to purchase expensive automated fillers; efficient, small-scale fillers can cost as much as $20,000, he estimates. So he’s been talking with the Vermont House and Senate agriculture committees, exploring the feasibility of regulating small dairy farms less like huge milk producers and more like delis and restaurants. “In a commercial kitchen, you’re allowed to have raw food and cooked food in the same place,” he notes. “You’re allowed to fill containers by hand if you’re wearing gloves and a hairnet.

That’s essentially how raw milk producers are allowed to sell.”

While the conversations have yet to yield action, “I feel optimistic because it would make sense,” Judge says. “You should be able to trust a farmer to produce a good, clean product as much as you can trust a pizzeria or a deli.”


So Judge soldiers on. A veteran of the dairy industry—he was a founding member of Vermont Family Farms in the 1990s and spent time managing the Woodstock Water Buffalo Farm—he appears to have the tenacity to stick with a good idea. And after years of milking a larger herd, he can personally confirm the smaller workload of a micro dairy. His own farm, just a few miles up the road from the Bob-White store, serves as the company’s applied research site; he milks four Jerseys to develop best practices for the equipment.

Since its founding in 2006, the company has raised almost $1 million in private investment to finance the development of the low-impact pasteurization system. Seven engineers have been involved in its design. Even if, for some unforeseen reason, the equipment isn’t approved in the U.S., Judge is confident that it can be marketed overseas. “The rest of the world has reasonable regulation,” he says.

Small-scale pasteurizers can also be used for products other than milk, such as juice and tea, so the equipment will have a market beyond dairy processors. Judge knows that demand exists for small-scale equipment, as Bob-White routinely stocks vat pasteurizers and 30–80 gallon bulk tanks from Slovenia.

“We’re selling [these] to small-scale farms that are selling raw milk, and some are pasteurizing and making butter or cheese,” Judge notes. Many of these farms call for advice, and Bob-White provides consulting services to farms looking to establish a micro dairy business.

In addition to sustaining small-scale agriculture, Judge thinks there’s another reason why micro dairies are an attractive idea. “Genetically, people like to work the land,” he comments. “And there are people saying they want local milk and they want an alternative to raw milk. The dairy industry is collapsing. This could reinvigorate it.”

Photo courtesy of Bob-White Systems

About the Author

Sylvia Fagin

Sylvia Fagin

Sylvia Fagin writes about food and agriculture from her home in Montpelier. To make sure that Vic, Marianne and the Bobs were making wine correctly, she recently took a tour of the Calchaquíes Valley winemaking region of northwestern Argentina. She is happy to report that they are right on track. Contact Sylvia via Twitter: @sylviafagin.

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A quarterly magazine devoted to covering local food, sustainable farming, and the many people building the Vermont food system.

Vermont's Local Banquet Magazine illuminates the connections between local food and Vermont communities. Our stories, interviews, and essays reveal how Vermont residents are building their local food systems, how farmers are faring in a time of great opportunity and challenge, and how Vermont’s agricultural landscape is changing as the localvore movement shapes what is grown and raised here.


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